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Lampedusa tra produzione e messa in scena della frontiera , Milano, Mimesis, , p. Il potere sovrano e la nuda vita , Torino, Einaudi, Lampedusa tra produzione e messa in scena della frontiera , The scene of exclusion, the obscene of inclusion Conflictual Fo Detention and Deportation across the Mediterranean Spac Atrapados a las puerta As we shall see, this is true, even if the differentiations mapped out by the near-mythical idea of the national and impervious state-controlled border tend to disappear, given the effects of trans-nationalization.

Transnationalization differs from homogenisation. It rather corresponds to the continuation of struggles and differentiation at another level. Three key events are taking place, now that it has taken several centuries for these professions to differentiate in the first place: Here, let us note that this so called enlargement of the concept is in fact reduced to the correlation between war, crime and migration, and does not include the loss of employment, car accidents or good health itself abruptly made in secure as social benefits are dismantled , all elements which are considered on the contrary as normal risks.

To cite merely one example, the French MTS governmentality of domestic intelligence and counter-espionage, equivalent to the British MI5 attempted to prove its force against the DGSE in charge of foreign intelligence, equivalent to the British MI6 regarding information on terrorist groups in Northern Africa, to put into place an exchange of services between agents working on the war on terrorism and those working on counter-espionage.

This happened to give it knowledge and capacities to act upon the exterior in ways that it was limited from acting on the interior. Eventually, these resources may give them the means to openly critique the politicians and political strategies of their respective countries 4.

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This explains how, as we have seen, when the President of the United States invokes a threat, he is only credible as long as he has not been contradicted by the intelligence community. If his claim turns out to be unfounded, the credibility of his refusal to reveal sources for his statement, purportedly based on reasons of national security, is put in grave doubt 5.

L'Exception - French creations internationally

Should the professionals of politics and the in security professionals come to clash directly, keeping this sort of knowledge secret is no longer considered proof of a hidden truth accessible only to the politicians. Thus, often, the only thing left for the politicians to do is to play the card of charisma to make their opinion more convincing.

Transnational regime of truth and theory of state sovereignty The notion of state, as conceived by international relations theory, cannot adapt to the result of these tensions created by trans-national bureaucratic links between professionals of politics, judges, police, intelligence agen- taken by the French agencies with which they had been collaborating. The DST counter espionage intelligence service put under surveillance some members of the government opposition of these countries that were living in France, which rumours even suggested led to possible assassination attempts.

In compensation, the MTS acquired more accurate information than the DGSE and used this transnational network to reinforce its own internal position. Such intra-national rivalries have impacted upon oppositional politics abroad, as in the case of Afghanistan and clandestine organizations such as Al Qaeda in the s. See the contribution of L. Bonelli in this volume.

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But he was obliged to resign the year after. Illiberal Practices of Liberal Regimes: As opposed to what is claimed by the main stream of cynical-realist writers on international relations, once these differentiated bureaucracies, with their respective positions, exist, it becomes impossible to return to a national interest, or assume a nationalist convergence of interests allowing all parties to rally around a single government.

On the contrary, these differentiated bureaucracies are actually forged in the crucible of international networks, and they autonomize different political sectors expressly for the purpose of ensuring that they exceed the domain of professional politicians. This tendency is particularly acute in the European arena, which has conventionally organized itself primarily within the framework of the nation state. For the past thirty years in Europe, new organizations have emerged, by which I mean networks and informal groups that transcend national frontiers and localize the spaces of political decision-making 7.

Only sociological work on the trans-nationalization of police and military bureaucracies has been able to show that it is no longer tenable to maintain the classical notion of the state.

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This demise is particularly evident in the privatized segments of these sectors, including professionals of the management of unease and actors whose profession involves risk assessment and accompanying issues of insurance coverage 8. These sociological works identify a transversal field of processes of in securitization, whereby a certain number of professionals from public institutions with 7. Among the first to note this link, Susan Strange has situated it in two contexts: However, she did not extend her claim to security, thinking that in the security sector if nowhere else, by virtue of sovereignty political, professionals were still in the position of making decisions.

And if she concurred, along with others, that non-elected banking professionals made decisions in lieu of political professionals, she nonetheless refused to believe that the same was true of the military and the police, whose professional connections she did not see, and which she persisted in imagining as subordinate to national politicians. Presses Sciences Po; Bigo D. Bigo, Brodeur et al. A Critical Theory of Police Power. By maintaining these positions, they exclude alternative discourses and make resistance on the part of non-professionals quite impossible.

Those who oppose the novel most vociferously today are of the opinion that intermingling with a different culture will inevitably weaken and ruin their own. I am of the opposite opinion. The Satanic verses celebrate hybridity, impurity, intermingling, the transformation that comes of new and unexpected combinations of human beings, cultures, ideas, politics, movies, songs.

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It rejoices in mongrelization and fears the absolutism of the Pure. It is the great possibility that mass migration gives the world, And I have tried to embrace it. Modern liberal theories plays great stress on the importance of a Tonna miss individual leading his life according to chosen plan. The term cosmopolitan is not supposed to indicate that the practitioner of the ethos in question is necessarily a migrant like Rushdie , A perpetual refugee like for example, Jean-Jacques Rousseau , or frequent-flyer like myself.

The cosmopolitan may live all his life in one city and maintain the same citizenship through out. But he refuses to think of himself as defined by his location or his ancestry or his citizenship or his language. Though he may live in San Francisco and B of Irish ancestry, he does not take his identity to be compromised when he learns Spanish, East Chinese, with clothes made in Korea, listens to areas by Verdae song by a Maori princess on Japanese equipment, follows Ukrainian politics, and practices Buddhist meditation techniques.

He is a creature of modernity, conscious of living in the mixed-up world and having a mixed-up self. It is community in the sense of community: A particular people sharing heritage of custom, ritual, and way of life that is in some real or imagined sense immemorial …. There is a human yearning or need to belong: I need that is in danger of being miserably frustrated -for example in the case of Knowles American aboriginal groups.

A thin theory … gives us the bare framework for conceptualizing choice and agency but leaving the specific contents of choices to be filled in by individuals. Let me state it provocatively. We need cultural meanings, but we do not need homogeneous cultural frameworks. We need to understand our choices in the context in which they make sense, but we do not need any single context to structure our choices. To put it crudely, we need culture, but we do not need cultural integrity.