Manual Gold und Stein 4: Serial Teil 4 (German Edition)

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Note the variations in pewter quality, as well. Das Gnomenfest c. The dark background color is typical. The twisted-branch handle is a signature of the Girmscheid factory. The lid and thumblift are lightweight pewter. This half-liter stein is marked HR, dating it c.


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A miniature porcelain stein, transfer decorated with a butterfly and flower design, then highlighted by hand. Porcelain is a very hard type of ceramic, entirely vitrified during the firing process, with a glass-like appearance and surface. A saltglazed pouring stein, decorated in typical cobalt and manganese colors. A half-liter clear glass stein, hand-blown with applied handle, c. The body has been faceted around the base, thumbprint cut above the waistline, and fitted with a porcelain inlaid lid in pewter mounts. The position of the thumblift over the lid and the closed pewter hinge indicate the earlier date.

Nevertheless, this civilian transport was adapted for the long-range reconnaissance and anti-shipping roles and, between August and February , Fw s sank 85 vessels for a claimed total of , Grt. However, Raeder and the Kriegsmarine failed to press for naval air power until the war began, mitigating the Luftwaffe ' s responsibility. The spring Amerika Bomber program also sought to produce useful strategic bomber designs for the Luftwaffe , with their prime design priority being an advanced trans-oceanic range capability as the main aim of the project to directly attack the United States from Europe or the Azores.

Inevitably, both the Bomber B and Amerika Bomber programs were victims of the continued emphasis of the Wehrmacht combined military's insistence for its Luftwaffe air arm to support the Wehrmacht Heer the regular German Army as its primary mission, and the damage to the German aviation industry from Allied bomber attacks. The RLM's apparent lack of a dedicated "technical-tactical" department, that would have directly been in contact with combat pilots to assess their needs for weaponry upgrades and tactical advice, had never been seriously envisioned as a critically ongoing necessity in the planning of the original German air arm.

However, due to lack of co-ordination between the RLM and OKL, all fighter and bomber development was oriented toward short range aircraft, as they could be produced in greater numbers, rather than quality long range aircraft, something that put the Luftwaffe at a disadvantage as early as the Battle of Britain. German combat aircraft types that were first designed and flown in the mids had become obsolete, yet were kept in production, in particular the Ju 87 Stuka, and the Bf , because there were no well-developed replacement designs. The failure of German production was evident from the start of the Battle of Britain.

By the end of the Luftwaffe had suffered heavy losses and needed to regroup. Deliveries of new aircraft were insufficient to meet the drain on resources; the Luftwaffe , unlike the RAF, was failing to expand its pilot and aircraft numbers. Nevertheless, the German aircraft industry was being outproduced in In fact German production in fighters fell from to per month between July and September After the Wehrmacht's failure in front of Moscow, industrial priorities for a possibility in increasing aircraft production were largely abandoned in favor to support the army's increased attrition rates and heavy equipment losses.

In an average of aircraft including fighters were produced each month. But in June, he was granted materials for fighters per month as the average output. The appointment of Albert Speer as Minister of Armaments increased production of existing designs, and the few new designs that had originated from earlier in the war. However the intensification of Allied bombing caused the dispersion of production and prevented an efficient acceleration of expansion. German aviation production reached about 36, combat aircraft for However, by the time this was achieved the Luftwaffe lacked the fuel and trained pilots to make this achievement worth while.

The failure to maximize production immediately after the failures in the Soviet Union and North Africa ensured the Luftwaffe ' s effective defeat in the period of September — February Despite the tactical victories won, they failed to achieve a decisive victory. By the time production reached acceptable levels, as so many other factors had for the Luftwaffe — and for the entire Wehrmacht military's weapons and ordnance technology as a whole — late in the war, it was "too little, too late".

By the late s, airframe construction methods had progressed to the point where airframes could be built to any required size, founded on the all-metal airframe design technologies pioneered by Hugo Junkers in and constantly improved upon for over two decades to follow — especially in Germany with aircraft like the Dornier Do X flying boat and the Junkers G 38 airliner. However, powering such designs was a major challenge.

Nazi Germany's initial need for substantially more powerful aviation engines originated with the private venture Heinkel He high-speed reconnaissance design, and the ostensibly twin-"engined" Messerschmitt Me for maritime reconnaissance duties — to power each of these designs, Daimler-Benz literally "doubled-up" their new, fuel-injected DB engines. The result was the twenty-four cylinder Daimler-Benz DB X-configuration engine, with four banks of six cylinders each.

Possessing essentially the same displacement of This led to the This situation with the and designs led to the company's engineering personnel being redirected to place all efforts on improving the to develop it to its full potential. Even the largest-displacement inverted V12 aircraft powerplant built in Germany, the The pioneering nature of jet engine technology in the s resulted in numerous development problems for both of Germany's major jet engine designs to see mass production, the Jumo and BMW both of pioneering axial flow design , with the more powerful Heinkel HeS never leaving the test phase, as only 19 examples of the HeS would ever be built for development.

The bomber arm was given preference and received the "better" pilots. Later, fighter pilot leaders were few in numbers as a result of this. As with the late shift to fighter production, the Luftwaffe pilot schools did not give the fighter pilot schools preference soon enough. The Luftwaffe , OKW argued, was still an offensive weapon, and its primary focus was on producing bomber pilots. This attitude prevailed until the second half of Later this was made worse by fuel shortages for pilot training.

Overall this meant reduced training on operational types, formation flying, gunnery training, and combat training, and a total lack of instrument training. At the beginning of the war commanders were replaced with younger commanders too quickly. These younger commanders had to learn "in the field" rather than entering a post fully qualified. Training of formation leaders was not systematic until , which was far too late, with the Luftwaffe already stretched.

The Luftwaffe thus lacked a cadre of staff officers to set up, man, and pass on experience. Moreover, Luftwaffe leadership from the start poached the training command, which undermined its ability to replace losses, [62] while also planning for "short sharp campaigns", [] which did not pertain. Moreover, no plans were laid for night fighters. These were established in They saw action in their proper role during —, most notably in the capture of the Belgian army fortress at the Battle of Fort Eben-Emael and the Battle for The Hague in May , and during the Battle of Crete in May During surplus Luftwaffe personnel see above was used to form the Luftwaffe Field Divisions , standard infantry divisions that were used chiefly as rear echelon units to free up front line troops.

At the end of the war, these units were also fighting allied tanks.

Germanic languages

The overwhelming number of its 12, members were Belgian, Dutch and French citizens. In and , aircraft production was moved to concentration camps in order to alleviate labor shortages and to protect production from Allied air raids. The two largest aircraft factories in Germany were located at Mauthausen-Gusen and Mittelbau-Dora concentration camps. Of the , Hungarian Jews deported between May and July , about , were gassed on arrival at Auschwitz and the remainder forced to work.

Only 50, survived.


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  8. Almost 1, fuselages of the jet fighter Messerschmitt Me were produced at Gusen, a subcamp of Mauthausen and brutal Nazi labor camp, [] [] where the average life expectancy was six months. For oil production, three subcamps were constructed and 15, prisoners forced to work in the plant. More than 3, people died. Luftwaffe airfields were frequently maintained using forced labor. Thousands of inmates from five subcamps of Stutthof worked on the airfields.

    Thousands of Luftwaffe personnel worked as concentration camp guards.

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    Auschwitz included a munitions factory guarded by Luftwaffe soldiers; [] 2, Luftwaffe personnel worked as guards at Buchenwald. Luftwaffe paratroopers committed many war crimes in Crete following the Battle of Crete , including the Alikianos executions , [] Massacre of Kondomari , [] and the Razing of Kandanos. Luftwaffe troops participated in the murder of Jews imprisoned in ghettos in Eastern Europe, for example assisting in the murder of 2, Jews at the Nemirov ghetto, [] participating in a series of massacres at the Opoczno ghetto, [] and helping to liquidate the Deblin-Irena ghetto by deporting thousands of Jews to the Treblinka extermination camp.

    Throughout the war, concentration camp prisoners were forced to serve as human guinea pigs in testing Luftwaffe equipment. In , experiments with the intent of discovering means to prevent and treat hypothermia were carried out for the Luftwaffe , which had lost aircrew to immersion hypothermia after ditchings. Sigmund Rascher , a Luftwaffe [] doctor based at Dachau, published the results at the medical conference entitled "Medical Problems Arising from Sea and Winter".

    In early , prisoners at Dachau were used by Rascher in experiments to perfect ejection seats at high altitudes. It was rumoured that Rascher performed vivisections on the brains of victims who survived the initial experiment. No positive or specific customary international humanitarian law with respect to aerial warfare existed prior to or during World War II.

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    The air raid on the town was one of the first aerial bombings of the war. The casualty rate was more than twice as high as Guernica. Furthermore, Trenkner stated that German bombers first destroyed the town's hospital. The bombing deliberately targeted the killing of civilians as punishment, and resulted in 17, civilian deaths. The operation commenced on 6 April and concluded on 7 or 8 April, resulting in the paralysis of Yugoslav civilian and military command and control, widespread destruction in the centre of the city and many civilian casualties.

    Following the Yugoslav capitulation, Luftwaffe engineers conducted a bomb damage assessment in Belgrade. The report stated that It listed all the targets of the bombing, which included: the royal palace, the war ministry, military headquarters, the central post office, the telegraph office, passenger and goods railway stations, power stations and barracks. It also mentioned that seven aerial mines were dropped, and that areas in the centre and northwest of the city had been destroyed, comprising 20 to 25 percent of its total area.

    Some aspects of the bombing remain unexplained, particularly the use of the aerial mines. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Organization of the Luftwaffe — See also: Luftwaffe personnel structure and Ranks and insignia of the Luftwaffe — Main article: Operational history of the Luftwaffe — See also: Nazi human experimentation.

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