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- Information Processing Theory - Learning Theories?
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Neutralization of Subjectivity, fig 1. Degrees of Meaning, fig 5. In sensory memory, information is gathered via the senses through a process called transduction. Through receptor cell activity, it is altered into a form of information that the brain could process. These memories, usually unconscious, last for a very short amount of time, ranging up to three seconds. Our senses are constantly bombarded with large amounts of information. Our sensory memory acts as a filter, by focusing on what is important, and forgetting what is unnecessary.
Sensory information catches our attention, and thus progresses into working memory, only if it is seen as relevant, or is familiar. Baddeley issued a model of working memory as consisting of three components.
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The executive controls system oversees all working memory activity, including selection of information, method of processing, meaning, and finally deciding whether to transfer it to long term memory or forget it. Two counterparts of this system are the auditory loop, where auditory information is processed, and the visual-spatial checkpad, where visual information is processed.
Sensory memories transferred into working memory will last for seconds, with a capacity for pieces or chunks of information. Information is maintained in working memory through maintenance or elaborative rehearsal.
Mechanisms in Science (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Maintenance refers to repetition, while elaboration refers to the organization of information such as chunking or chronology. The processing that occurs in working memory is affected by a number of factors. Firstly, individuals have varying levels of cognitive load, or the amount of mental effort they can engage in at a given moment, due to individual characteristics and intellectual capacities.
Secondly, information that has been repeated many times becomes automatic and thus does not require much cognitive resources e.
History of evolutionary thought
Lastly, according to the task at hand, individuals use selective processing to focus attention on information that is highly relevant and necessary. Long term memory includes various types of information: declarative semantic and episodic , procedural how to do something , and imagery mental images. As opposed to the previous memory constructs, long term memory has unlimited space. The crucial factor of long term memory is how well organized the information is.
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This is affected by proper encoding elaboration processes in transferring to long term memory and retrieval processes scanning memory for the information and transferring into working memory so that it could e used. In general, we remember a lot less information than is actually stored there. Recommendations 2.
Useful Tools and Resources. Popular Pages Home. More Info. Contributors George A. Miller Atkinson and Shriffin Craik and Lockhart Bransford Rumelhart and McClelland Key Concepts The basic idea of Information processing theory is that the human mind is like a computer or information processor — rather than behaviorist notions that people merely responding to stimuli. The general model of information processing theory includes three components: Sensory memory In sensory memory, information is gathered via the senses through a process called transduction.
Information Processing Theory
Long term memory Long term memory includes various types of information: declarative semantic and episodic , procedural how to do something , and imagery mental images. References Miller, G. The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information.