Inoltre, la sua personale biblioteca di libri dedicati all'occulto contava oltre volumi. Gli scritti di Merritt erano fortemente influenzati dall'opera di H. I suoi eroi erano sempre valorosi guerrieri irlandesi o scandinavi , i cattivi di turno provenivano spesso dalla Germania e dalla Russia in accordo con la politica estera americana di quei tempi , mentre i personaggi femminili erano verginali e scarsamente vestiti.
Howard , C. Moore e Frank Belknap Long.
Le opere di Merritt vengono spesso indirettamente citate anche nella serie televisiva di successo mondiale Lost. Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Altri progetti Wikisource Wikiquote Wikimedia Commons. Portale Biografie. The Life of Dante and a commentary on the first 17 cantos of the Inferno. During the second half of the 14th century, Florence remained a centre of culture, but its literature developed a more popular character. The best-known representative of this development was bellman and town crier Antonio Pucci died , whose vast verse production included poems on local Florentine lore, as well as historical and legendary verse narratives.
Florentine narrative literature was represented by the Pecorone c. The recasting of the Carolingian and Arthurian cycles continued along lines established during the 13th century. Compilations in prose and verse became more common, and Franco-Venetian literature gained in literary value. Epic legends were turned into romantic stories, which appealed more to their illiterate audiences in town squares and other public places.
Less polished, but of greater literary value, were the translations of Latin legends concerning St. Vernacular historiography of this period could be described as popular literature, with Florence as its main centre. Compagni wrote his chronicle between and , after having taken part in the political struggles of his town; his dramatic account of the episodes and the liveliness of his prose made it the most original work of medieval Italian historiography.
His Chronicle was versified by fellow Florentine Antonio Pucci. The poetry that survives is popular in nature and written to be accompanied by music. The following period was to be characterized by critical and philological activity rather than by original creative work. The 15th century, devoid as it was of major poetic works, was nevertheless of very great importance because it was the century in which a new vision of human life, embracing a different conception of man, as well as more modern principles of ethics and politics, gradually found their expression.
This was the result, on the one hand, of political conditions quite different from those of previous centuries and, on the other, of the rediscovery of classical antiquity. With regard to the first point, nearly all Italian princes competed with each other in the 15th century to promote culture by patronizing research, offering hospitality and financial support to literary men of the time, and founding libraries. As a consequence, their courts became centres of research and discussion, thus making possible the great cultural revival of the period.
To return to the second point, the search for lost manuscripts of ancient authors, begun by Petrarch in the previous century, led to an extraordinary revival of interest in classical antiquity: in particular, much research was devoted to ancient philosophy in general and in particular to Plato Aristotle had been the dominant voice in the Middle Ages , a fact that was to have profound influence on the thinking of the Renaissance as a whole. By and large, the new culture of the 15th century was a revaluation of man. Humanism opposed the medieval view of man as a being with relatively little value and extolled him as the centre of the universe, the power of his soul as linking the temporal and the spiritual, and earthly life as a realm in which the soul applies its powers.
The humanist vision evolved during this period condemned many religious opinions of the Middle Ages still widely prevalent: monastic ideals of isolation and noninvolvement in the affairs of the world, for example, were attacked by Leonardo Bruni, Lorenzo Valla, and Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini. Forthright though these attacks were, humanism was not essentially anti-Christian, for it generally remained faithful to Christian beliefs, and the papal court itself regarded humanism as a force to be assimilated rather than defeated.
In the first half of the century the humanists, with their enthusiasm for Latin and Greek literature, had a disdain for the Italian vernacular. They wrote for the most part in Latin prose. Their poetic production, inspired by classical models and written mostly in Latin and later Greek, was abundant but at first of little value. Writing in a dead language and closely following a culture to which they had enslaved themselves, they rarely showed originality as poets.
These poets succeeded in creating sincere poetry in which conventional and less conventional themes were expressed with new, original intimacy and fervour. Toward the middle of the 15th century Italian began to vie with Latin as the literary language. The Certame Coronario, a public poetry competition held in Florence in with the intention of proving that the spoken Italian language was in no way inferior to Latin, marked a definite change.
In the second half of the century there were a number of works of merit written in Italian and inspired either by the chivalric legends of the Middle Ages or by the new humanist culture. The new ideals of the humanists were most complete in Politian, Jacopo Sannazzaro, and Leon Battista Alberti, three outstanding figures who combined a wide knowledge of classical antiquity with a personal and often profound inspiration.
In this work, which was one of the first historical Italian grammars, Bembo demanded an Italian literary language based on 14th-century Tuscan models, particularly Petrarch and Boccaccio. During the first decades of the 16th century, treatises on poetry were still composed according to humanist ideas and the teachings of the Roman Augustan poet Horace. The traditional principle of imitation was now better analyzed, in the twofold sense of the imitation of classical authors and that of nature. The three theatrical unities time, space, action were among the structural rules then reestablished, while much speculation was devoted to epic poetry.
The classical conception of poetry as a product of imagination supported by reason was at the basis of 16th-century rhetoric, and it was this conception of poetry, revived in Italy, that triumphed in France, Spain, and England during the following century.
Political, historical, biographical, and moral literature. Machiavelli has been described as the founder of a new political science: politics divorced from ethics. Its description of a model ruler became a code for the wielding of absolute power throughout Europe for two centuries. Machiavelli also holds a place in the history of imaginative literature, above all for his play La Mandragola , one of the outstanding comedies of the century. Although more of a realist or pessimist than Machiavelli, Francesco Guicciardini was the only 16th-century historian who could be placed within the framework of the political theories he constructed.
Maxims and Reflections of a Renaissance Statesman , has a place among the most original political writings of the century. The autobiography of the sculptor and goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini written —66, published was remarkable for its vigorous spontaneity and its use of popular Florentine language.
It became one of the most influential books of the century. Giovanni della Casa was the author of another famous treatise, the Galateo c. Lyric poetry in the 16th century was dominated by the model of Petrarch mainly because of the acceptance of the Renaissance theory of imitation and the teaching of Bembo. Almost all the principal writers of the century wrote lyric poems in the manner of Petrarch. Also worthy of note are the passionate sonnets of the Paduan woman poet Gaspara Stampa and those of Michelangelo.
The tradition of humorous and satirical verse also was kept alive during the 16th century. Outstanding among its practitioners was Francesco Berni, whose burlesque poems, mostly dealing with indecent or trivial subjects, showed his wit and stylistic skill. Orlando Furioso , which incorporated many episodes derived from popular medieval and early Renaissance epics.
Orlando furioso was the most perfect expression of the literary tendencies of the Italian Renaissance at this time, and it exercised enormous influence on later European Renaissance literature. Ariosto also composed comedies that, by introducing imitation of Latin comedy, marked the beginning of Renaissance drama in the vernacular. Two burlesque medley forms of verse were invented during the century.
Fidenziana poetry derives its name from a work by Camillo Scroffa, a poet who wrote Petrarchan parodies in a combination of Latin words and Italian form and syntax. Macaronic poetry, on the other hand, which refers to the Rabelaisian preoccupation of the characters with eating, especially macaroni, is a term given to verse consisting of Italian words used according to Latin form and syntax. Teofilo Folengo, a Benedictine monk, was the best representative of macaronic literature, and his masterpiece was a poem in 20 books called Baldus The tendency to parody, ridiculing the impractical excesses of humanist literature, was present in both fidenziana and macaronic verse.
Torquato Tasso, son of the poet Bernardo Tasso, was the last great poet of the Italian Renaissance and one of the greatest of Italian literature. In his epic Gerusalemme liberata ; Jerusalem Delivered he summed up a literary tradition typical of the Renaissance: the classical epic renewed according to the spiritual interests of his own time.
The subject of the poem is the First Crusade to recapture Jerusalem. Its structure dramatizes the struggle to preserve a central purpose by dominating and holding in check centrifugal urges toward sensual and emotional indulgence. Its pathos lies in the enormous cost of self-control. Tasso also wrote shorter lyric verse throughout his life, including religious poems, while his prose dialogues show a style no longer exclusively dominated by classical models. Toward the middle of the 16th century Giambattista Giraldi Cinzio reacted against imitation of Greek drama by proposing the Roman tragedian Seneca as a new model, and in nine tragedies and tragicomedies—written between and —he showed some independence from Aristotelian rules.
He greatly influenced European drama, particularly the English theatre of the Elizabethan period. The Italian comedies of the century, inspired by Latin models but also by the tradition of the novella, possessed greater artistic value than the tragedies, and they reflected contemporary life more fully: they could be considered as the starting point for modern European drama. Giordano Bruno, a great Italian philosopher who wrote dialogues in Italian on his new cosmology and antihumanist ideas, also wrote a comedy, Il candelaio ; The Candlemaker. His works, often monologues written in a rural Paduan dialect, treat the problems of the oppressed peasant with realism and profound seriousness.
Another dialect playwright of the same century, now also more widely appreciated, is the Venetian Andrea Calmo, who showed a nice gift for characterization in his comedies of complex amorous intrigue. The cleric and short-story writer Matteo Bandello started a new trend in 16th-century narrative with stories that were rich in dramatic and romantic elements while not aiming at classical dignity.
Far from being exhausted, indeed, this was an extremely vital period, so much so that in the last decades of the 20th century a new and more comprehensive understanding of the literature of the Italian Baroque has been formulated by scholars conversant with the changing attitude toward this phase of civilization in Germany, France, and England. The popularity of satire was a reaction against prevailing conditions.
Prominent in this genre was the Neapolitan Salvator Rosa, who attacked in seven satires the vices and shortcomings of the age. The Modenese Alessandro Tassoni acquired great fame with La secchia rapita ; The Rape of the Bucket , a mock-heroic poem that is both an epic and a personal satire. The most serious poet of the period was Tommaso Campanella, a Dominican friar, who spent most of his adult life in prison as a subversive.
Marino derived inspiration from the poetry of the late 16th century, but his aim—typical of the age—was to excite wonder by novelty. His imitators were innumerable, and most 17th-century Italian poets were influenced by his work. Toward the end of the century a patriotic sonneteer, Vincenzo da Filicaia, and Alessandro Guidi, who wrote exalted odes, were hailed as major poets and reformers of the excesses of the Baroque. Among prose writers of the period, the satirist Traiano Boccalini stood out with Ragguagli di Parnasso —13; Advertisements from Parnassus in the fight against Spanish domination.
A history of the Council of Trent which defined Catholic doctrines in reaction to the Reformation was written by Paolo Sarpi, an advocate of the liberty of the Venetian state against papal interference, and a history of the rising of the Low Countries against Spain was written by Guido Bentivoglio. The Venetian novels of Girolamo Brusoni are still of interest, as are the travels of Pietro della Valle and the tales of the Neapolitan Giambattista Basile.
All the restless energy of this period reached its climax in the work of Galileo, a scientist who laid the foundations of mathematical philosophy and earned a prominent place in the history of Italian literature through the vigour and clarity of his prose. With the rise of the music drama and the opera, Italian authors worked to an increasing extent with the lyric stage. Librettos written by poets such as Ottavio Rinuccini were planned with dramatic and musical artistry. During the 17th century a popular spirit entered the opera houses: intermezzi short dramatic or musical light entertainments were required between the acts, a practice that undermined the dramatic unity of the performance as a whole, and toward the end of the century every vestige of theatrical propriety was abandoned.
A typical exponent of the Arcadian lyric was Pietro Metastasio, the 18th-century reformer of the operatic libretto. In Francesco Scipione Maffei, an antiquary of Verona, produced Merope—a tragedy that met with great success and pointed the way toward reform of the Italian tragic theatre. Between and Antonio Conti—an admirer of Shakespeare—wrote four Roman tragedies in blank verse. It was not until and the success of his Cleopatra, however, that an important Italian tragedian finally emerged in the person of Vittorio Alfieri.
He chose classical and biblical themes, and through his hatred of tyranny and love of liberty he aspired to move his audience with magnanimous sentiments and patriotic fervour. He is at his most profound in Saul and Mirra The dialogue was mostly improvised, and the plot—a complicated series of stage directions, known as the scenario—dealt mainly with forced marriages, star-crossed lovers, and the intrigues of servants and masters.
Goldoni succeeded in replacing this traditional type of theatre with written works whose wit and vigour are especially evident when the Venetian scene is portrayed in a refined form of the local dialect. Perhaps because of his prolific output his work has sometimes been thought of as lacking in depth. His social observation is acute, however, and his characters are beautifully drawn. Mirandolina , with its heroine Mirandolina, a protofeminist, has things to say about class and the position of women that can still be appreciated today. Giambattista Vico, Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Apostolo Zeno, and the already mentioned Scipione Maffei were writers who reflected the awakening of historical consciousness in Italy.
Muratori collected the primary sources for the study of the Italian Middle Ages; Vico, in his Scienza nuova —44; The New Science , investigated the laws governing the progress of the human race and from the psychological study of man endeavoured to infer the laws by which civilizations rise, flourish, and fall. Giovanni Maria Mazzuchelli and Gerolamo Tiraboschi devoted themselves to literary history. Literary criticism also attracted attention; Gian Vincenzo Gravina, Vico, Maffei, Muratori, and several others, while advocating the imitation of the classics, realized that such imitation should be cautious and thus anticipated critical standpoints that were later to come into favour.
With the end of Spanish domination and the spread of the ideas of the Enlightenment from France, political reforms were gradually introduced in various parts of Italy. The new spirit of the times led men—mainly of the upper middle class—to enquire into the mechanics of economic and social laws. More than anyone else, Giuseppe Parini seems to embody the literary revival of the 18th century. The 19th century was a period of political ferment leading to Italian unification, and many outstanding writers were involved in public affairs.
This poem influenced the Italian Risorgimento, or national revival, and a passage in which Florence was praised because it preserved in the church of Santa Croce the ashes of Michelangelo, Machiavelli, and Galileo is still very popular in Italy.
Italian literature - The 20th century | posoritysako.tk
As an exile in England from until his death in , he wrote remarkable critical essays on Italian literature for English readers. In Foscolo patriotism and classicism united to form a single fixed passion, but the eclectic Vincenzo Monti was outstanding for mobility of feeling. The trend was toward pedantic classicism as a reaction against an excessive Gallicism favoured by some 18th-century writers.
Among the purists was Antonio Cesari, who brought out a new enlarged edition of the Vocabolario della Crusca the first Italian dictionary, published by the Accademia della Crusca in But a Lombard school opposed this Tuscan supremacy. By contrast, the patriot Pietro Giordani—for a time a journalistic colleague of Monti—was a great exponent of purismo.
His views did not stem from literary pedantry, however, but from a concern that all social groups throughout Italy should have a common means of communication. In this respect he was linguistically opposed to the great Romantic poet Carlo Porta, who lampooned the aristocracy and clergy and expressed sympathy with the humble and wretched in narrative poems composed not in Italian but in a lively Milanese dialect. All Italy took part in the disputes about language, literature, and politics. An artificial form of classicism was associated with the Napoleonic domination of Italy, so that when Napoleon fell, forces antagonistic to classicism arose.
Literary Romanticism had already won favour with the French, who erroneously thought themselves akin to the German Romantics. Their efforts were silenced in when several of them were arrested by the Austrian police because of their liberal opinions; among them was Pellico, who later wrote a famous account of his experiences, Le mie prigioni ; My Prisons.
Alessandro Manzoni grandson of reformer Cesare Beccaria was the chief exponent of Italian Romanticism, but perhaps an even higher claim to fame was his contribution to the resolution of the language problem. In he started working on a panoramic novel about the lives of simple people placed against a background of major historical events, and, in order that this should be accessible to a wide readership, he decided to write it in an idiom as close as possible to modern educated Florentine speech.
The second draft was published in —27 under the title I promessi sposi The Betrothed ; and the final definitive edition came out in —42 after a long, painstaking process of revision aimed at making the text conform more closely with colloquial Florentine usage. The foremost Italian poet of the age was Giacomo Leopardi, an outstanding scholar and thinker whose philological works together with his philosophical writings, Operette morali, would alone place him among the great writers of the 19th century.
Embittered by solitude, sickness, and near penury, he realized from age 20 the vanity of hope. Though he developed a doctrine of universal pessimism, seeing life as evil and death as the only comfort, the poetry based on these bitter, despairing premises was far from depressing. The Poems of Leopardi , first published in Some were patriotic and were once very popular; but the most memorable came from deeper lyrical inspiration.
They balance depth of meaning and formal beauty, simplicity of diction, intensity, and verbal music.
The 20th century
Circumstances made it inevitable that Italian Romanticism should become heavily involved with the patriotic myths of the Risorgimento; yet, while this served a useful civic purpose at the time, it did not encourage literature of consistent artistic merit or enduring readability. The Castle of Fratta , which marks Nievo as the most important novelist to emerge in the interval between Manzoni and Giovanni Verga.
The bitterness of some of his poetry revealed frustration and rebelliousness. Rime nuove The New Lyrics and Odi barbare The Barbarian Odes , both of which appeared in the s, contained the best of his poetry: memories of childhood, evocations of landscape, laments for domestic sorrows, an inspired representation of historical events, an ambitious effort to resuscitate the glory of Roman history, and an anachronistic but sincere cult of pagan civilization. He tried to adapt Latin prosody to Italian verse, which sometimes produced good poems, but his opposition to Romanticism and his rhetorical tirades provoked a strong reaction, and his metrical reform was short-lived.
He was also a scholarly historian of literature, and his literary essays had permanent value, although philosophical criticism such as that of Francesco De Sanctis was uncongenial to him. Both his poetry and his criticism were cited when he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature for De Sanctis himself was connected politically with the Risorgimento, but he is remembered chiefly for his critical writings.
His most important works were various critical essays and Storia della letteratura italiana —71; History of Italian Literature. De Sanctis was not properly appreciated in his day but came into his own at the turn of the century when Benedetto Croce rescued his works from oblivion. While Carducci was still alive, Giovanni Pascoli acquired a reputation and succeeded him in the chair of Italian literature at the University of Bologna.
Later he produced—both in humanistic Latin and in self-consciously elaborate Italian—heroic hymns in honour of two sacred cities, Rome and Turin. The patriotic niceties and sentimental Romanticism of much Risorgimento writing inevitably provoked a reaction. Unfortunately the movement—perhaps by its very nature—lacked intellectual cohesion and tended to cultivate the eccentric as an end in itself. The scapigliati, however, made a useful contribution in social criticism and in their informal linguistic approach. The veristi were not concerned with sermons or noble sentiments but with observable phenomena.
When they dealt with the Italy of the Risorgimento, they showed it warts and all. The House by the Medlar Tree and Mastro-don Gesualdo , the reader often has the sensation of being put down in an unfamiliar milieu and—as would happen in real life—left to pick up the threads from gossip and chance remarks. In their search for documentary exactitude the veristi paid close attention to regional background. Matilde Serao, on the other hand, has given a detailed and colourful reportage of the Neapolitan scene, while Renato Fucini conveyed the atmosphere of traditional Tuscany.
Emilio De Marchi, another writer in the realist mold, has Milan for his setting and in Demetrio Pianelli has painted a candid but essentially kindly portrait of the new Milanese urban middle class. Antonio Fogazzaro was akin to the veristi in his powers of observation and in his descriptions of minor characters; but he was strongly influenced by Manzoni, and his best narrative work, Piccolo mondo antico ; The Little World of the Past , is a nostalgic look back to a supposedly less individualistic age when inner tranquillity was seemingly achieved by devotion to a shared ideal.
Tozzi, however, belongs psychologically and stylistically to the 20th century. After unification the new Italy was preoccupied with practical problems, and by the early 20th century a great deal of reasonably successful effort had been directed toward raising living standards, promoting social harmony, and healing the split between church and state. It was in this prosaic and pragmatic atmosphere that the middle classes—bored with the unheroic and positivist spirit of former decades—began to feel the need for a new myth. Perhaps his most influential work was his literary criticism, which he expounded and continually revised in articles and books spanning nearly half a century.
Unfortunately, his highly systematized approach to criticism led to a certain rigidity and a refusal to recognize the merits of some obviously important writers, and this was undoubtedly one reason why after World War II his authority waned. His monumental corpus of philosophical, critical, and historical works of great scholarship, humour, and common sense remains, however, the greatest single intellectual feat in the history of modern Italian culture.
While Croce was starting his arduous task, literary life revolved mainly around reviews such as Leonardo , Hermes , La Voce , and Lacerba , founded and edited by relatively small literary coteries. The leader of the Futuristi was Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, editor of Poesia, a fashionable cosmopolitan review.
The end of World War I saw a longing for the revival of tradition, summed up in the aims of the review La Ronda, founded in by the poet Vincenzo Cardarelli and others, which advocated a return to classical stylistic values. This led to an excessive cult of form in the narrow sense—as exemplified by the elegant but somewhat bloodless essays elzeviri published in Italian newspapers on page three—and obviously fitted in with the stifling of free expression under fascism.
The sterility of this period, however, should not be exaggerated. The 20 years of fascist rule were hardly conducive to creativity, but in the dark picture there were a few glimmers of light. Meanwhile, the Florentine literary reviews Solaria, Frontespizio, and Letteratura, while having to tread carefully with the authorities, provided an outlet for new talent.
Novelists such as Alberto Moravia, Corrado Alvaro Gente in Aspromonte [; Revolt in Aspromonte] , and Carlo Bernari had to use circumspection in stating their views but were not completely silenced. The controversial Ignazio Silone, having chosen exile, could speak openly in Fontamara This was a way of transferring the dissociation of reality from the plane of content to that of form, thereby achieving an almost perfect unity between ideas and dramatic structure. Pirandello was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.